Computer Basics -4 || Importance of Operating System(OS).

Operating System(OS) is the main software which handles all the hardware and other software in a typical digital machine.

Importance of Operating System(OS)

Importance and task of a Operating System.

Process Management

The process is a set of defined steps which executes when certain input has been given to any system.

For example, whenever the user press any key on the keyboard OS get instruction and print that letter on the screen.

Each task in a computer is a process. Hence, there are multiple processes are running at the same time. Managing all this process to increase the utilization and speed of the computer is called Process Management.

Process Management can be achieved via Job Scheduling. While performing scheduling below points needs to be considered:

  • Maximum utilization of CPU
  • Time taken by any process to complete, should minimum
  • Waiting time between two processes should be minimum
  • Each process should get a response as soon as possible
  • Throughput(average time taken to complete a task) should be maximum.

Job Scheduling Methods

Whatever activity we perform on a computer system is called a process and OS creates a queue or a list of such activities. This method is called Job Scheduling Methods.

Job Scheduling Process

First Come First Serve(FCFS): The First process in the queue will finish execution completely than move to next.

Shortest Job Next Scheduling: The process which takes very less time, will get the next position in the task queue.

Deadline Scheduling: The process which has the earliest deadline(completion time), will get the next position in the task queue.

Memory Management

Memory Management by Operating System

We all know that there are two types of memory present in any computer system.

  • Primary Memory:
    • Basically, it refers to RAM
    • Fastest memory as CPU can access this directly.
    • Also, called temporary memory
    • Expensive as compared to the Secondary Memory
  • Secondary Memory:
    • It refers to any external storage device like HDD, USB drive, etc.
    • Slow than Primary as CPU access this memory via RAM.
    • User can store their data permanently on this memory.

Operating System allocates memory to each process and data as per the requirement based on the above types.

Suppose we have opened a Word file to work upon it. When the word file remains open and we are typing on it, the process resides on the Primary Memory i.e. RAM.

As soon as we save this data using the Save option of the Word application, all the data get stored permanently on the Secondary Memory i.e. HDD.

The main task of the Memory Management process is to provide a unique address on the memory (HDD or RAM) to each activity. This address gets stored in a segment table. This segment table is used to find the data on the Secondary memory(HDD) and loads the same on the Primary Memory(RAM).

File Management

All the data in the computer get saved in the form of the File. Even to save a single character we have to create a file. Managing these files on the system is called File Management. This process involves the below points:

  • Create a New File
  • Save file
  • Update any file
  • password protected files
  • Deletion of file
  • Recover any deleted file
  • Maintain folder structure.

A folder is also a File type, but we can’t store any data in it. It only used to provide a structure to maintain the ease of accessing these files. Also, we could organize all the files in the multiple folders. See below example:

Files and Folder Structure

Think about an Almirah. It contains multiple racks and we could store different type of stuff in each rack. So Almirah and racks are the folders and all the stuff are like files.

Device Management

The process to handle the multiple devices is called Device Management. Operating System achieves this task using the various type of Device Drivers. A Driver is an interface between the Operating System and the device connected to it. Driver establishes a connection between both of them.

Device Management

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